Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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47_05_05

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (2018) 47(5): 31–40

 

ANTI-HUMAN HERPESVIRUS TYPE-1 ACTIVITY OF Phaleria

macrocarpa FRUITS METHANOL EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS


MAHMUD ISMAEEL1, HERRYAWAN RYADI EZIWAR DYARI1, NOREFRINA SHAFINAZ MD. NOR1,

WAN AHMAD YAACOB2 and NAZLINA IBRAHIM1*


1School of Biosciences and Biotechnology,

2School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology,

Faculty of Science and Technology Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor

*E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

 

Accepted 2 October 2018, Published online 30 November 2018


ABSTRACT

The development of antiviral agents with the different mode of action is necessary due to high prevalence of viral herpes infections and presence of resistant viral strains. The current study aims at evaluating the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the methanol extract from Phaleria macrocarpa fruits and its fractions. Methanol extract (ME) of P. macrocarpa fruits, chloroform fraction (CF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) were first prepared. Terpene, alkaloid, saponin and tannin were present only in ME and EAF whilst flavone aglycones and steroid were detected in all the preparations. Cytotoxicity of ME, CF and EAF from P. macrocarpa fruit was evaluated against Vero cell. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were between 0.40 to 1.20 mg/mL and can be considered as safe. Antiviral activity (post-treatment) against human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1), pretreatment, virucidal, attachment and penetration assays were analysed by plaque reduction assay. ME and EAF displayed antiviral activity in post-treatment assay whereas no anti-HHV-1 activity was observed when treated with CF. The antiviral selectivity indices (SI) of ME and EAF were 9.8 and 8 respectively. In this current study, extract and fractions were observed to have anti-HHV-1 activity when given as pretreatment in which virus attachment to Vero cell was disabled. Treatment with extract and fractions inactivates the early steps in the viral life cycle of HHV-1 as indicated by the attachment and virucidal assays in a dose-dependent activity. Pretreatment of the virus with ME, CF and EAF can lead to plaque formation to inhibit and the treatment with ME, CF and EAF showed high virucidal activities. However, it was found that only with EAF penetration assay did not affect the inhibition of the virus.

Key words: Phaleria macrocarpa fruits, phytochemical content, cytotoxicity, HHV-1

 

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