Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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47_04_03

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (2018) 47(4): 25–34

 

BREAKFAST CONSUMPTION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH

COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE AMONG FISHERMEN’S

CHILDREN IN TERENGGANU


TAI SIN WEI and ASMA’ ALI*


School of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu,

21030 Kuala Nerus, Malaysia

*E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Accepted 10 September 2018, Published online 25 October 2018


ABSTRACT

Regular breakfast consumption among children is important to improve their cognitive performance. However, there has been no data found yet on breakfast consumption of children among fishermen families in Terengganu or its relationship with cognitive performance. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the relationship between breakfast consumption and cognitive performance among fishermen’s children aged 7 to 12 years old in Terengganu, Malaysia. A questionnaire consisting of demographic data and three days dietary recall was used along with face-to-face interviews with children and their parents. Moreover, respondents’ cognitive performance was assessed using Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices and categorized into five grades. Among 100 children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this study, 75% were regular breakfast eaters (consumed breakfast at least five times weekly). Both age groups; 7 to 9 and 10 to 12 years old, fulfilled the Ministry of Health’s and RNI recommendations in terms of total energy intake at breakfast (352.79 kcal and 339.8 kcal) and carbohydrate content (51.27 g and 52.13 g) respectively, despite their low socio-economic condition. However, their fat consumption (10.91 g and 9.85 g) exceeded the suggested range, while protein (12.49 g and 11.34 g) and fiber (1.20 g) intake were insufficient to reach recommended range. Referring to RNI, the respondents’ highest fulfilments of micronutrient were vitamin C and iron while the lowest was iodine from their breakfast consumption. Although total raw scores in cognitive assessment increased with respondent age, majority (94%) had level of cognitive performance which below the average. There was no association found between breakfast frequency and cognitive performance. Furthermore, energy intake and selected macro- and micronutrients in breakfast consumption also had no relationship towards significant cognitive performance.

Key words: Breakfast consumption, cognitive performance, fishermen’s children, Terengganu

 

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