Malaysian Applied Biology Journal

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47_02_03

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Malays. Appl. Biol. (2018) 47(2): 15–23

 

CHEMICAL EVALUATION AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES

OF EXTRACTS AND ESSENTIAL OIL FROM

Stevia rebaudiana LEAVES

 

USWATUN HASANAH ZAIDAN1,3*, SITI NURHAFAMASMIRZA MAISARAH HAMID1,

MUHAMMAD FAHMI MAT YUSOF1, SYAHIDA AHMAD1,

SITI SALWA ABD GANI2,3 and SUHAILI SHAMSI1


1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences,

Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture,

Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

3Halal Product Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport,

43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

*E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

 

Accepted 3 April 2018, Published online 25 May 2018


ABSTRACT

In spite of its prominence as a natural non-calorific sweetener used to replace table sugar, Stevia rebaudiana contains a variety of valuable phytoconstituents functioning as natural food-derived antioxidants with a protective effect against oxidative damage. In this study, leave extracts were screened for their phytochemical compounds and quantified for their total phenolic content (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC). Qualitative phytochemicals screening shows the extracts were rich in tannin, steroid, alkaloids, coumarin, glycosides, and flavonoids. Interestingly, the highest TFC recovery was found in water extract (84.42 mg QE/g dry weight) while TPC detected showed no significant difference between acetone extract (170.0 mg GAE/g dry weight) and water extract (168.86 mg GAE/g dry weight). The essential oil (EO) was analysed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) and revealed thirty one compounds representing 92.85% of the total oils were detected. Some new compounds such as ?-sitosterol (1.15%), globulol (2.56%), epiputranjivol (4.69%), betulinic aldehyde (8.30%), and ionone (2.54%) were firstly identified from this plant. Among crude extracts, water extract possesses the highest percentage of radical scavenging activity (% RSA) with IC50 of 3.37 ?g/mL lower than standard trolox (5.83 ?g/mL). The IC50 of EO was significantly found to be 0.91 ?g/mL comparable with standard ascorbic acid (0.51 ?g/mL), thus reflecting water extract and essential oil as an excellent antioxidant sources.

Key words: Stevia rebaudiana, chemical evaluation, antioxidant activity, essential oil, bioactive compounds

 

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